The Fountain of Youth April 7, 2010Posted by zach in Biology, Genetics, Physiology.
Scientists at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, are currently looking at the protein sestrin, to see how it affects signaling pathways which affect aging. Sestrin is highly conserved across many different species, ranging from mammals to Drosophila melanogaster…better known as the fruit fly. Being in a wide range of organisms makes sestrin a very important candidate for research on aging. Often study findings in fruit flies can be can be generalized to humans.
Sestrin, stress, and aging
Sestrin is regulated by stress levels in the cell, when a cell begins to experience stress, sestrin production is increased. Scientist have know about the increase of sestrin during stress for a while, but couldn’t explain the function of the greater concentration of sestrin in the cell until recently. From looking at Drosophila it was found that sestrin functions as an activator of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibitors of Target of Rapamycin (TOR). From looking at model organisms such as C. elegans and Drosophila it was found that the main role of the AMPK and TOR signaling pathways is to control aging and metabolism. The AMPK pathway is extremely complex; its simplified function is to act as a master regulator of cellular metabolism. While TOR is responsible for maintaining the balance between protein synthesis and degradation based off of nutritional quantity and quality. It is currently thought that calorie restricted diets may control the TOR pathway to combat the effects of aging.
What does sestrin do?
To look at the function of sestrin scientist made a knockout Drosophila or a fly who was not expressing the genes for sestrin. In Drosophila sestrin is located on a single gene. When the sestrin gene was inactivated scientist saw an under regulation of the AMPK and over regulation of the TOR pathways, this confirms the regulatory role of sestrin in these two systems. The pathological effects of a deficiency of sestrin can be seen in Drosophila as an accumulation in triglycerides, cardiac arrhythmia and muscle degeneration. These same pathological effects can be seen in humans. Finding a way to control these pathological effects could lead to way to greatly increase the human life span.
So how does this relate to me?
…besides all these cool pathways in my body that regulate how fast I will age? If we can control the regulation of our TOR and AMPK signaling pathways we can control one aspect of our aging. The end hope is that from this research scientist will be able to develop a way to slow aging in order to treat degenerative disorders, such as sarcopenia and Alzheimer’s. Since the beginning of time scientists have been searching for that fountain of youth.
A few critters in the animal world have found ways to combat the effects of aging.
Maybe we should take a closer look at species such as orange roughy and tortoise that both have extremely long life spans.
By comparing protein profiles between long living critters and humans scientist may be able to unlock how their bodies
combat aging. Their might be a time in the future when it is not uncommon to live to be over a hundred years old.
Oxygenated Water April 7, 2010Posted by zach in Biology, Chemistry, Exercise, Medicine, Physiology.
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Does what’s in your water bottle during a race matter?
Recently a new study came out citing, when alcohol contained a high amount of dissolved oxygen there was a decreased hangover effect. My first reaction was asking myself how this worked. From Science Daily I learned that dissolved oxygen can function as an agent for the alcohol metabolizing enzymes to oxidize the ethanol into less toxic products until it’s completely decomposed into water and carbon dioxide. This sparked me to research if any studies have been done to see if oxygenated water had an ergogenic effect in endurance athletes.
When mice consumed water with high dissolved oxygen content they had enhanced survival ability, fatigue recovery, greater anoxia function and increased energy storage. While oxygenated water may contain what seems to be a rather insignificant amount of oxygen (~40mg/L) versus that which your body obtains per breath (~150 mg of oxygen), it may be just enough to tweak certain athletic performances. Consider for a moment that you are a professional cyclist and the difference between winning a race and going home a loser comes down to a few inches in a races that covers over 100 miles. In these situations athletes are more than happy to look into any slim performance enhancing drinks, especially if it was as simple as drinking water with high oxygen content.
Thus in regards to the article, all the ergogenic effects of drinking oxygenated water that were found in mice would be extremely beneficial to any athlete. The studies are lacking in humans and there a lot of skeptics on the issue of oxygenated water. The skeptics say that the oxygen in the water is insignificant because oxygen cannot be easily absorbed thought the stomach. Secondly most of the oxygen gas will be burped out not allowing it to be absorbed into the body. My reaction is if it worked in mice there is a good chance that the same effects could be carryed over in humans. Both are mammals. Both have similar digestive tracts.
Does the next step in athletic performance, in regards to oxygen intake, involve not breathing air but ingesting it?
Perfluorocarbon can contain 25 percent more oxygen than air and can transfer oxygen to the lungs three times more effectively than air. When mice are submerged in perfluorocarbon they can survive for several weeks and will make a complete recovery when the perfluorocarbon is drained from the lungs. Amazingly, if a deep-sea diver used a single breath of liquid oxygenated perfluorocarbon, he or she could remain submerged for up to an hour without having to take another breath.
If oxygen uptake was no longer a limiting factor on athletic performance, then a whole new set of possibilities emerges exploring how fast or strong athletes can become by not breathing air, but breathing liquid perfluorocarbons.
The BBC production Wonders of the Human Body explores how perfluorocarbon have the possibility to be used as a new medium for the body to obtain oxygen.